Gray baby syndrome is a condition in which an infant experiences a life-threatening reaction to the antibiotic Chloramphenicol.
Which drugs may cause gray baby syndrome?
Gray baby syndrome may occur in neonates exposed to excessive doses of chloramphenicol. It is a state of cardiovascular collapse and usually begins 2–9 days after start of treatment.
What causes GREY baby syndrome?
Gray baby syndrome: A syndrome due to toxicity of the antibiotic chloramphenicol in the newborn, especially the premature newborn, because of lack the necessary liver enzymes to metabolize this drug.
Why is it not advisable to give chloramphenicol to a newborn?
The other major toxic effect of chloramphenicol is the gray baby syndrome in neonates, which is characterized by abdominal distension, vomiting, flaccidity, cyanosis, circulatory collapse, and death. This syndrome also has been recognized in toddlers and after overdoses in adults.
What medication is indicated in serious life-threatening infections and has adverse effects of bone marrow suppression and gray baby syndrome?
It was initially isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces venezuelae in 1948 and was the first bulk produced synthetic antibiotic.  However, chloramphenicol is a rarely used drug in the United States because of its known severe adverse effects, such as bone marrow toxicity and grey baby syndrome.
Is GREY bad for babies?
Gray baby syndrome is a rare, life-threatening condition that can develop in babies and children up to the age of 2. The condition is a potential side effect of the antibiotic chloramphenicol.
What is a gray baby syndrome?
Gray baby syndrome is an adverse reaction to chloramphenicol that is characterized by abdominal distention, hemodynamic collapse, and ashen-gray skin discoloration in neonates.
What is red baby syndrome?
Abstract. Red Baby Syndrome is a new disease seen in infants and young children. Dramatic onset of clinical symptoms with high intensity, short duration and lack of similarity with other cutaneous lesions makes it distinct. Of 50 such patients studied over a period of 5 years, half were below one year of age.
What are the side effects of phototherapy?
Side effects — Phototherapy is very safe, but it can have temporary side effects, including skin rashes and loose stools. Overheating and dehydration can occur if a baby does not get enough breast milk or formula. Therefore, a baby’s skin color, temperature, and number of wet diapers should be closely monitored.
What is a bucket baby?
These infants are being referred to as “bucket babies” or “container babies”. CBS is the result of a child spending considerable amounts of time in various containers with less opportunities for tummy time. They are contained in a small space and essentially immobilized while resting on the back of their heads.
Can chloramphenicol be used on babies?
Chloramphenicol can be used by most adults and children. The eye drops and eye ointment are available to buy in pharmacies. For children under 2 years old, you’ll need a prescription for chloramphenicol from your doctor.
What are the side effect of chloramphenicol?
Common side effects of chloramphenicol include:
- not enough red blood cells produced (aplastic anemia)
- bone marrow suppression.
- inflammation of the small intestine and the colon (enterocolitis)
- accumulation of chloramphenicol especially in newborns (gray syndrome)
Why carbenicillin Cannot be given orally?
Carbenicillin and indanyl carbenicillin (Fig. 20-7), its α-carboxy ester for oral administration, are no longer used because of the large doses required, the greater potential for toxicity, and the availability of more potent alternatives.
Why chloramphenicol is banned?
Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries.
What bacteria does chloramphenicol treat?
PRESCRIBED FOR: Chloramphenicol treats various infections caused by susceptible strains of S. yphi, H. influenzae, E. coli, Neisseria species, Staphylococcus and Streptococcusspecies, Rickettsia, lymphogranuloma-psittacosis group of organisms, and other bacteria that cause bacteremia (bacteria in blood) and meningitis.
How can you prevent chloramphenicol toxicity?
Serious toxicity was associated with either prescription of dosages greater than that recommended or overdosage of chloramphenicol. High concentrations in young neonates may be avoided by prescribing and giving the recommended dose and then careful monitoring; concentrations should be maintained between 15 and 25 mg/l.